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Call Feature
A clause in a bond or preferred share agreement that allows the issuer the right to "call back" the securities prior to maturity. The company would usually do this if they could refinance the debt at a lower rate (similar to refinancing a mortgage at a lower rate). Calling back a security prior to maturity may involve the payment of a penalty known as a call premium.


Call Option
The right to buy a specific number of shares at a specified price (the strike price) by a fixed date. The buyer pays a premium to the seller of the call option contract. An investor would buy a call option if the underlying stock's price is expected to rise. See also Put Option.


Call Price
The price at which a bond or preferred share with a call feature is redeemed by the issuer. This is the amount the holder of the security would receive if the security was redeemed prior to maturity. The call price is equal to par (or a stated value for preferred shares) plus any call premium. See also Redemption Price.


Call Protection
For callable bonds, the period before the first possible call date.


May be redeemed (called in) upon due notice by the security's issuer.


Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (CDIC)
A federal Crown Corporation providing deposit insurance against loss (up to $100,000 per depositor) when a member institution fails.


Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG)
An incentive program for those investing in a Registered Education Savings Plan (RESP) whereby the federal government will make a matching grant of a maximum of $500 to $600 per year of the first $2,500 contributed each year to the RESP of a child under age 18.


Canada Pension Plan (CPP)
A mandatory contributory pension plan designed to provide monthly retirement, disability and survivor benefits for all Canadians. Employers and employees make equal contributions. Québec has its own parallel pension plan Québec Pension Plan (QPP).


Canada Premium Bonds (CPBs)
A relatively new type of savings product that offers a higher interest rate compared to the Canada Savings Bond and is redeemable once a year on the anniversary of the issue date or during the 30 days thereafter without penalty.


Canada Savings Bonds (CSBs)
A type of savings product that pays a competitive rate of interest and that is guaranteed for one or more years. They may be cashed at any time and, after the first three months, pay interest up to the end of the month prior to being cashed.


Canada Yield Call
A callable bond with a call price based on the greater of (a) par or (b) the price based on the yield of an equivalent-term Government of Canada bond plus a specified yield spread. Also known as a Doomsday call. See also Call Price and Callable Bond.


Canadian Council of Insurance Regulators
The association of insurance regulators in jurisdictions across Canada.


Canadian Derivatives Clearing Corporation (CDCC)
The CDCC is a service organization that clears, issues, settles, and guarantees options, futures, and futures options traded on the Bourse de Montréal (the Bourse).


Canadian Investor Protection Fund (CIPF)
A fund that protects eligible customers in the event of the insolvency of an IIROC dealer member. It is sponsored solely by IIROC and funded by quarterly assessments on dealer members.


Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association Incorporated (CLHIA)
The national trade group of the life insurance industry, which is actively involved in overseeing applications and setting industry standards.


Canadian National Stock Exchange (CNSX)
Launched in 2003 as an alternative marketplace for trading equity securities and emerging companies.


Canadian Originated Preferred Securities (COPrS)
Introduced to the Canadian market in March 1999, as long-term junior subordinated debt instruments. This type of security offers features that resemble both long-term corporate bonds and preferred shares. Canadian Payments Association


Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA)
The CSA is a forum for the 13 securities regulators of Canada's provinces and territories to co-ordinate and harmonize the regulation of the Canadian capital markets.


Canadian Unlisted Board (CUB)
An Internet web-based system for investment dealers to report completed trades in unlisted and unquoted equity securities in Ontario.


Provides institutional investors with electronic access to federal bond bid and offer prices and yields from its six bank-owned dealers.


A joint venture of several IIROC member firms and operates as an electronic trading system for fixed income securities providing investors with real-time bid and offer prices and hourly trade data.


Has two distinct but related meanings. To an economist, it means machinery, factories and inventory required to produce other products. To an investor, it may mean the total of financial assets invested in securities, a home and other fixed assets, plus cash.


Capital Cost Allowance (CCA)
An amount allowed under the Income Tax Act to be deducted from the value of certain assets and treated as an expense in computing an individual's or company's income for a taxation year. It may differ from the amount charged for the period in depreciation accounting.


Capital and Financial Account
Account which Reflects the transactions occurring between Canada and foreign countries with respect to the acquisition of assets, such as land or currency. Along with the current account a component of the balance of payments.


Capital Gain
Selling a security for more than its purchase price. For non-registered securities, 50% of the gain would be added to income and taxed at the investor's marginal rate.


Capital Leases or Capitalized Leases
An expenditure recorded on the balance sheet as an asset rather than as an expense.


Capital Loss
Selling a security for less than its purchase price. Capital losses can only be applied against capital gains. Surplus losses can be carried forward indefinitely and used against future capital gains. Only 50% of the loss can be used to offset any taxable capital loss.


Capital Market
Financial markets where debt and equity securities trade. Capital markets include organized exchanges as well as private placement sources of debt and equity.


Capital Stock
All shares representing ownership of a company, including preferred as well as common. Also referred to as equity capital.


Capitalization or Capital Structure
Total dollar amount of all debt, preferred and common stock, contributed surplus and retained earnings of a company. Can also be expressed in percentage terms.


Recording an expenditure initially as an asset on the balance sheet rather than as an earnings statement expense, and then writing it off or amortizing it (as an earnings statement expense) over a period of years. Examples include capitalized leases, interest, and research and development.


Carry Forward
The amount of RRSP contributions that can be carried forward from previous years. For example, if a client was entitled to place $13,500 in an RRSP and only contributed $10,000, the difference of $3,500 would be the unused contribution room and can be carried forward indefinitely.


Cash Account
A type of brokerage account where the investor is expected to have either cash in the account to cover their purchases or where an investor will deliver the required amount of cash before the settlement date of the purchase.


Cash Flow
A company's net income for a stated period plus any deductions that are not paid out in actual cash, such as depreciation and amortization, deferred income taxes, and minority interest. For an investor, any source of income from an investment including dividends, interest income, rental income, etc.


Cash-Secured Put Write
Involves writing a put option and setting aside an amount of cash equal to the strike price. If the cash-secured put writer is assigned, the cash is used to buy the stock from the exercising put buyer.


Cash Value
The current market value of a segregated fund contract, less any applicable deferred sales charges or other withdrawal fees


An electronic trading system for fixed income securities operating in both retail and institutional markets.


CDS Clearing and Depository Services Inc. (CDS)
CDS provides customers with physical and electronic facilities to deposit and withdraw depository-eligible securities and manage their related ledger positions (securities accounts). CDS also provides electronic clearing services both domestically and internationally, allowing customers to report, confirm and settle securities trade transactions.


Central Bank
A body established by a national Government to regulate currency and monetary policy on a national level. In Canada, it is the Bank of Canada; in the United States, the Federal Reserve Board; in the U.K., the Bank of England.


The use of charts and patterns to forecast buy and sell decisions. See also Technical Analysis.


Chinese Walls
Policies implemented to separate and isolate persons within a firm who make investment decisions from persons within a firm who are privy to undisclosed material information which may influence those decisions. For example, there should be separate fax machines for research departments and sales departments.


Class A and B Stock
Shares that have different classes sometimes have different rights. Some may have superior claims over other classes or may have different voting rights. Class A stock is often similar to a participating preferred share with a prior claim over Class B for a stated amount of dividends or assets or both, but without voting rights; the Class B may have voting rights but no priority as to dividends or assets. Note that these distinctions do not always apply.


Clearing Corporations
A not-for-profit service organization owned by the exchanges and their members for the clearance, settlement and issuance of options and futures. A clearing corporation provides a guarantee for all options and futures contracts it clears, by becoming the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer.


Clone Fund
Generally a fund that tries to mimic the performance and/or the objectives of a successful existing fund within a family of funds. A common example of a clone fund is when a fund company issues an RRSP version of a foreign equity fund, consisting of derivatives managed in a way that duplicates the returns of the underlying fund.


Closed-End Fund
Shares in closed-end investment companies are readily transferable in the open market and are bought and sold like other shares. Capitalization is fixed. See also Investment Company.


Closet Indexing
A portfolio strategy whereby the fund manager does not replicate the market exactly but sticks fairly close to the market weightings by industry sector, country or region or by the average market capitalization.


Coincident Indicators
Statistical data that, on average, change at approximately the same time and in the same direction as the economy as a whole.


Collateral Trust Bond
A bond secured by stocks or bonds of companies controlled by the issuing company, or other securities, which are deposited with a trustee.


Commercial Paper
An unsecured promissory note issued by a corporation or an asset-backed security backed by a pool of underlying financial assets. Issue terms range from less than three months to one year. Most corporate paper trades in $1,000 multiples, with a minimum initial investment of $25,000. Commercial paper may be bought and sold in a secondary market before maturity at prevailing market rates.


The fee charged by a stockbroker for buying or selling securities as agent on behalf of a client.


A product used for commerce that is traded on an organized exchange. A commodity could be an agricultural product such as canola or wheat, or a natural resource such as oil or gold. A commodity can be the basis for a futures contract.


Common Stock
Securities representing ownership in a company. They carry voting privileges and are entitled to the receipt of dividends, if declared. Also called common shares.


Competitive Tender
A distribution method used in particular by the Bank of Canada in distributing new issues of government marketable bonds. Bids are requested from primary distributors and the higher bids are awarded the securities for distribution. See also Non-Competitive Tender.


Compound Interest
Interest earned on an investment at periodic intervals and added to the amount of the investment; future interest payments are then calculated and paid at the original rate but on the increased total of the investment. In simple terms, interest paid on interest.


A printed acknowledgement giving details of a purchase or sale of a security which is normally mailed to a client by the broker or investment dealer within 24 hours of an order being executed. Also called a contract.


A company directly or indirectly operating in a variety of industries, usually unrelated to each other. Conglomerates often acquire outside companies through the exchange of their own shares for the shares of the majority owners of the outside companies.


Consolidated Financial Statements
A combination of the financial statements of a parent company and its subsidiaries, presenting the financial position of the group as a whole.


See Reverse Split.


Constrained Share Companies
Include Canadian banks, trust, insurance, broadcasting and communication companies having constraints on the transfer of shares to persons who are not Canadian citizens or not Canadian residents.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Price index which measures the cost of living by measuring the prices of a given basket of goods. The CPI is often used as an indicator of inflation.


Continuation Pattern
A chart formation indicating that the current trend will continue.


Continuous Disclosure
In Ontario, a reporting issuer must issue a press release as soon as a material change occurs in its affairs and, in any event, within ten days. See also Timely Disclosure.


Contract Holder
The owner of a segregated fund contract.


Represents a downturn in the economy and can lead to a recession if prolonged.


Contributed Surplus
A component of shareholders' equity which originates from sources other than earnings, such as the initial sale of stock above par value.


Contributions in Kind
Transferring securities into an RRSP. The general rules are that when an asset is transferred there is a deemed disposition. Any capital gain would be reported and taxes paid. Any capital losses that result cannot be claimed.


Conversion Price
The dollar value at which a convertible bond or security can be converted into common stock.


Conversion Privilege
The right to exchange a bond for common shares on specifically determined terms.


Conversion Ratio
The number of common shares for which a convertible security can be exchanged. Convertible preferreds and debentures would have a stated number outlined in their prospectus or indenture as to the exchange rate. For example, the conversion ratio on a bond may be 25. This means that the bond could be exchanged for 25 common shares. If the conversion ratio is divided into par value, the result is called the conversion price.


A bond, debenture or preferred share which may be exchanged by the owner, usually for the common stock of the same company, in accordance with the terms of the conversion privilege. A company can force conversion by calling in such shares for redemption if the redemption price is below the market price.


Convertible Arbitrage
A strategy that looks for mispricing between a convertible security and the underlying stock. A typical convertible arbitrage position is to be long the convertible bond and short the common stock of the same company.


A measure of the rate of change in duration over changes in yields. Typically, a bond will rise in price more if the yield change is negative than it will fall in price if the yield change is positive.


Corporate Note
An unsecured promise made by the borrower to pay interest and repay the principal at a specific date.


Corporation or Company
A form of business organization created under provincial or federal statutes which has a legal identity separate from its owners. The corporation's owners (shareholders) have no personal liability for its debts. See also Limited Liability.


A measure of the relationship between two or more securities. If two securities mirror each other's movements perfectly, they are said to have a positive one (+1) correlation. Combining securities with high positive correlations does not reduce the risk of a portfolio. Combining securities that move in the exact opposite direction from each other are said to have perfect negative one (-1) correlation. Combining two securities with perfect negative correlation reduces risk. Very few, if any, securities have a perfect negative correlation. However, risk in a portfolio can be reduced if the combined securities have low positive correlations.


Correlation Coefficient
A measure of the relationship between the returns of two securities or two classes of securities.


Cost Accounting Method
Used when a company owns less than 20% of a subsidiary.


Cost of Goods Sold
An earnings statement account representing the cost of buying raw materials that go directly into producing finished goods.


Cost-Push Inflation
A type of inflation that develops due to an increase in the costs of production. For example, an increase in the price of oil may contribute to higher input costs for a company and could lead to higher inflation.


Country Banks
A colloquial term for non-bank lenders who provide short-term sources of credit for investment dealers; e.g., corporations, insurance companies and other institutional short-term investors, none of whom is under the jurisdiction of the Bank Act. See also Purchase and Resale Agreement.


Coupon Rate
The rate of interest that appears on the Certificate of a bond. Multiplying the coupon rate times the principal tells the holder the dollar amount of interest to be paid by the issuer until maturity. For example, a bond with a principal of $1,000 and a coupon of 10% would pay $100 in interest each year. Coupon rates remain fixed throughout the term of the bond. See also Yield.


A pledge in a bond indenture indicating the fulfilment of a promise or agreement by the company issuing the debt. An example of a covenant may include the promise not to issue any more debt.


Buying a security previously sold short. See also Short Sale.


Covered Writer
The writer of an option who also holds a position that is equivalent to, but on the opposite side of the market from the short option position. In some circumstances, the equivalent position may be in cash, a convertible security or the underlying security itself. See also Naked Writer.


Cross on the Board
Also called a put-through or contra order. When a broker has both an order to sell and an order to buy the same stock at the same price, a cross is allowed on the exchange floor without interfering with the limits of the prevailing market.


Canadian Unlisted Board – a web-based trade reporting system for unlisted securities.


Cum Dividend
With dividend. If you buy shares quoted cum dividend, i.e., before the ex dividend date, you will receive an upcoming already-declared dividend. If shares are quoted ex-dividend (without dividend) you are not entitled to the declared dividend.


Cum Rights
With rights. Buyers of shares quoted cum rights, i.e., before the ex-rights date, are entitled to forthcoming already-declared rights. If shares are quoted ex rights (without rights) the buyer is not entitled to receive the declared rights.


Cumulative Preferred
A preferred stock having a provision that if one or more of its dividends are not paid, the unpaid dividends accumulate in arrears and must be paid before any dividends may be paid on the company's common shares.


Current Account
Account that Reflects all payments between Canadians and foreigners for goods, services, interest and dividends. Along with the capital account it is a component of the balance of payments.


Current Assets
Cash and assets which in the normal course of business would be converted into cash, usually within a year, e.g. accounts receivable, inventories. A balance sheet category.


Current Liabilities
Money owed and due to be paid within a year, e.g. accounts payable. A balance sheet category.


Current Ratio
A liquidity ratio that shows a company's ability to pay its current obligations from current assets. A current ratio of 2:1 is the generally accepted standard. See also Quick Ratio.


Current Yield
The annual income from an investment expressed as a percentage of the investment's current value. On stock, calculated by dividing yearly dividend by market price; on bonds, by dividing the coupon by market price. See also Yield.


Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures is the trademark for a standard system of securities identification (i.e., CUSIP numbering system) and securities description (i.e., CUSIP descriptive system) that is used in processing and recording securities transactions in North America.


A firm that holds the securities belonging to a mutual fund or a segregated fund for safekeeping. The custodian can be either the insurance company itself, or a qualified outside firm based in Canada.


Cyclical Stock
A stock in an industry that is particularly sensitive to swings in economic conditions. Cyclical Stocks tend to rise quickly when the economy does well and fall quickly when the economy contracts. In this way, cyclicals move in conjunction with the business cycle. For example, during periods of expansion auto stocks do well as individuals replace their older vehicles. During recessions, auto sales and auto company share values decline.


Cyclical Unemployment
The amount of unemployment that rises when the economy softens, firms' demand for labour moderates, and some firms lay off workers in response to lower sales. It drops when the economy strengthens again.